The NIHM statistics for the U.S. reveal that approximately 7.7 million Americans are experiencing the disorder and many more people worldwide. The majority of sufferers are adults, with the most common age of onset being people in their early 20s.

Who Experiences PTSD?

PTSD is a common anxiety disorder partly due to the fact that it affects millions of war veterans who have developed this condition of chronic stress during wartime, following combat duties. In the early days of its recognition in soldiers, it was referred to by names such as “combat fatigue” and “soldier’s heart.”

It can also result from other traumatic experiences, including accidents that result in serious physical injuries to oneself or from witnessing or causing accidents in which death or injury occurs to loved ones or to anyone who is terminally injured.

PTSD can also result in those who have had violent and/or sexually deviant behaviors perpetrated upon them and in those whose loved ones have suddenly passed away or have departed from them under difficult circumstances (sometimes referred to as “separation anxiety” in these cases).

Symptoms of PTSD

As with other anxiety disorders, PTSD causes frequent triggering of the “fight or flight response”, the anxiety mechanism that increases adrenaline in the body. The resulting symptoms can include panic attacks and free-floating type anxiety symptoms in which a person feels continually anxious, apprehensive and on-edge.

Some of the characteristic symptoms that set PTSD apart from other anxiety disorders include nightmares involving the traumatic event(s) experienced by the disorder sufferer and flashbacks in which they believe they are reliving the events that triggered the disorder. While flashbacks are a type of delusion, this does not place PTSD in the “psychosis” category, but it is still considered to be a condition of “neurosis.”


The more common type of medication therapy used to treat PTSD patients is SSRI antidepressants. However, this type of anxiety disorder usually requires psychiatric therapy for patients to successfully cope with the disorder and for possible resolution of it (complete recovery). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has been found to be highly successful in helping patients recover from this and other chronic anxiety disorders.

Other therapies that may be administered, in combination with drug treatment or as single treatments, include therapies called “Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing” (EMDR), “Exposure Therapy” (facing the event mentally to find closure) and aspects of therapy that help sexually traumatized victims realize they are not at fault and should not be experiencing guilt over their experiences.

Anyone who believes they may be experiencing symptoms of PTSD should see their medical doctor or a licensed mental health professional as soon as possible.

The Wild Man had PTSD

According to John and Caitlin Matthews, often as a consequence of participation in warfare, now and then a person who was most likely to be a grown man would run off into the wilds. Those who saw him flee perceived him as having been profoundly upset and possibly out of his mind. One case of this story has been found in Druidic British traditions as the case of the Wild Man. Eventually, he came back to civilization, no longer crazy from his war trauma. The great joy and hope of this story is that PTSD can be cured, and in many of the cases where it cannot be, it can be greatly reduced.


Specialized mental training can prevent the onset of some PTSD. PTSD is best prevented by strong emotional and social support during and especially after the event. The person should talk about it if that is at all possible and should be supported by the others – whomever they are. Getting the event into perspective will help. When the events take place during a deployment they may have to be reviewed, and contextualized for peace time surroundings. In some cases, only cumulative traumatic stress will even put a person at serious risk of developing it. Making sure that help is available is an important step in the healing process.


The old therapy of running off into the wilds is not normally available to sufferers today. In some cases modified exposures to reminders with safer outcomes can reduce the affect of the reactions. There are also times when EMDR therapy can be used to treat PTSD. Frequently, talk therapy combined with at least temporary use of a psychoactive medication specific to the problem, and some type of “exposure therapy” will yield best results. Fortunately, for most people who suffer from PTSD, it clears up within six months. For those who cannot be cured, or who take decades to cure, they can still be greatly healed, making the reactions less overwhelming to their personalities and daily lives than it was when it was at its worst.

Many people are first introduced to the fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous, also called AA, by a judge or a parole officer who tells them to attend some meetings. Others walk into that first meeting of their own accord or at the request of a loved one. Although Alcoholics Anonymous is not a religious organization, many AA meetings are held in churches. There are a number of meetings available at different dates and times. Smaller cities will have less variety than larger ones.

While there are different types of meetings – closed meetings, which are only open to alcoholics or people who think they are alcoholics; open meetings, which are open to anyone interested in the disease of alcoholism or speaker meetings, which feature a main speaker – most groups follow a basic format.

Alcoholics Anonymous Meetings are Filled with Recovering Alcoholics

When a new person arrives at his first AA meeting, he is likely to see people talking, drinking coffee and saying hello to their friends. People often sit in chairs arranged in a circle. Some meetings are large and some meetings are small. Almost everyone is there because they want to be.

A chairperson opens the meeting, usually by asking for a moment of silence followed by a group recitation of the Serenity Prayer. Someone usually reads the AA Preamble taken from the Alcoholics Anonymous text known as the Big Book. Sometimes another reading from the Big Book called The Promises is read. People attending their first meeting will have an opportunity to introduce themselves by giving their first name if they want to, but it’s not required.

Most of the AA Meeting Time Will Be Taken Up by the Discussion

After the readings, a discussion leader starts the topic by speaking about something related to alcoholism and recovery. After the discussion leader opens, other members will speak. People introduce themselves by saying “My name is _____________________ and I am an alcoholic,” and then begin sharing on the discussion topic or any other recovery-related subject they need to talk about.

People may share about how they got sober. They may talk about the 12 steps or about the importance of getting a sponsor or about going to a meeting every day for 90 days. No one is required to talk during a meeting. A person who does not want to speak will not be put on the spot.

After the discussion portion of the meeting is over, a basket will be passed to honor of the 7th Tradition, which states that “every AA group should be self-supporting.” There is no requirement to put any money into the basket, and no one notices if someone doesn’t. While the basket is going around, the chairperson will ask for AA-related announcements.

AA Meetings Offer White Chips to Newcomers

Before ending the meeting, different colored chips are offered to alcoholics who have stayed sober for certain continuous periods of time – 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, six months, nine months and one year. A white chip is offered to anyone who wishes to stay sober or who has relapsed. If a new person wants to pick up a chip, but feels uncomfortable doing that in front of a group, it is completely acceptable to ask the chairperson for one after the meeting has ended.

Usually the meeting ends in a standing circle and with another group recitation of the Serenity Prayer. Some people may need to have meeting attendance sheets signed for a court officer or treatment center. The chairperson will be happy to sign these after the closing prayer. After the meeting, people may offer a new person their name or number in case the newcomer wants to call and ask any questions about AA or the program.

Alcoholics Anonymous has been helping people get sober since 1935. Alcoholics who have abuse issues with other mood or mind altering substances, may also want to investigate AA’s offspring fellowship, Narcotics Anonymous.

Addiction is recognized as causing a lot of human suffering; not only for the addict themselves but also for those around them. Many addicts do manage to get periods away from their alcohol or drug abuse but these attempts to quit often end in relapse. There is now some evidence to suggest that mindfulness training may be able to help people cope better in recovery.

What is Mindfulness Based Relapse Prevention?

Mindfulness Based Relapse Prevention is based on Buddhist meditation techniques that have been practiced for centuries. The power of this practice has prompted individuals such as Jon Kabat-Zinn to remove some of the religious elements of the practice to use it purely as a way to treat stress related illness. Mindfulness training has produced such positive results that organizations like the Mental Health Foundation in the UK are pushing for its wider introduction. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK has also been convinced by the evidence that mindfulness training can help with mental illness and stress related disease.

Mindfulness is a meditation technique that involves carefully observing what is happening in the body and mind without becoming caught up in the action. It has been described as observing as if you are an outsider looking in. Mindfulness can be practiced as a sitting practice or it can also be performed while conducting any activity; for example, people can mindfully wash their car. Mindfulness training involves being fully present for what is happening at this moment.

Mindfulness Based Relapse Prevention is said to work for a number of reasons. One problem that newly sober people have is that they struggle to cope with the stresses and strains of life. It is claimed that mindfulness can help them manage stress much better. There is also the hope that this training will make it easier for people to cope with any cravings that arise.

The Evidence for Mindfulness Based Relapse Prevention

There have been a number of studies that have looked at the feasibility of using mindfulness as a way to prevent relapse. One such study was conducted by Zgierska et al where it was found that promising evidence existed to prove the effectiveness of mindfulness for those recovering from addiction. Their small study was comprised of 19 recovering addicts in an outpatient mindfulness program. One of the outcomes was that the majority of those in the study claimed they felt better able to handle stress and cravings. The stress reducing effects of mindfulness seem to be well supported and the UK Mental Health Foundations has reported that 72% of GPs believe that the technique has helped their patients with stress when it has been recommended.

There is good reason to believe that mindfulness may be of use to those recovering from addiction. Considering the amount of human suffering caused by substance abuse anything that may be of help is welcome. More research will be needed before any conclusions can be reached about the effectiveness of mindfulness based relapse prevention.

If you’ve been encouraged to try Al-Anon by a minister, therapist, friend or family member, you might be wondering what will happen when you get there and how you will be treated. You might have a concern that you will be overwhelmed by too much attention or that you won’t fit in. You might worry what people will think of you if you share details of your everyday life . You might wonder if you’ll be forced to talk or if you can just listen. Does it cost anything? Are there any forms to fill out and any commitments? What should you wear? This article addresses those concerns and others.

The Room and the Physical Environment

The vast majority of Al-Anon meeting rooms are casual places, and people are welcomed in almost any attire. There will probably be coffee available, often with a basket for contributions. Don’t feel obligated to pay for your coffee, especially if your financial life has been impacted by your loved one’s drinking. There will typically be a literature rack where you can help yourself to free pamphlets, and you will find friendly people around if you want to strike up a conversation.

The Meeting Format

Although there are several different versions of Al-Anon meetings, the group will typically sit in a circle and begin the meeting with a moment of silence followed by the Serenity Prayer. A pre-selected volunteer chairman will read some introductory material about the program and explain how that particular group operates. People will most likely introduce themselves by saying something like “Hi, my name is Susan and I’m an Alanon”. Do not feel obligated to do this if you don’t feel comfortable with it. After some announcements and welcoming comments, the chairman will introduce either a Speaker or a Leader, who will establish the topic for the evening. Some typical formats are Step Study, topic discussion and speaker meetings.

Group Participation

If you find yourself in a discussion meeting rather than a Speaker meeting, you will have the opportunity to share your experience with the disease of alcoholism, briefly. You are not required to do so, and you may just say your name and then something like “I’d like to just listen tonight”. Most meetings discourage “crosstalk”, which is defined as any interruption of the person who is sharing. Questions are not asked and comments are not made during the time someone is speaking to the group. Those discussions are typically held after the meeting, person to person. Most meetings also encourage participants to keep the focus on themselves, and not the alcoholic.

The Basket and the Notebook

At some time during the meeting, the chairman or leader will pass a basket, box or other container around the room for voluntary contributions, as Al-Anon is self-supported. First-time visitors are usually exempt from this custom, and you’ll likely be told your first meeting is “on the house”. Many members find that their finances have been severely damaged by alcoholism and literally do not have a dollar or two to donate. Many meetings also pass a notebook where attendees can put their first name and phone number. This is a good opportunity for newcomers to copy down phone numbers of experienced members, for private conversations at a later time. There are no forms or commitments for newcomers.

Al-Anon meetings are a safe and friendly environment for those who need to find recovery for themselves in response to alcoholism in a family member or friend.

Medicine has come a long way over the last few years. Surgeons can clone sheep and have developed hypoallergenic kittens.

Doctors have learned how to manage HIV and are pushing the boundaries of treatment for a myriad different chronic diseases. The one thing society has not yet come to terms with, however, is how to cure a hangover.

If a hangover is to be viewed as an illness, it is up there with ‘Flu as a debilitating and demoralising state. It makes the mouth feel like the bottom of a bird cage, and leaves the sufferer’s body feeling as if he had undergone ten rounds in a boxing ring the night before, without having the associated cash bonus that accompanies such activities. It leaves the eyes puffy and red, a monstrous headache, and a stomach so fragile that even the thought of food makes it churn like a merry-go-round. No-one sympathises with a hangover, as it is self-inflicted, and yet the symptoms can often be worse than a terrible cold.

Common Myths About Cures

Through time, there have been a number of myths surrounding the best possible ways to cure a hangover and get the sufferer up and about again. The most common one is the ‘Hair of the Dog’. Most people agree that if the hangover sufferer can face it, a swift drink can ease symptoms and get people up on their feet again and feeling relatively human once more. However, while a drink will offer some temporary relief, the last thing a body drenched in alcohol really needs is a top up. The Hair of the Dog will leave the sufferer feeling even worse after a few hours, and is best avoided if possible.

Other Cures which are Sworn by Include:

  • A can of Coke and a banana
  • A raw egg beaten in to milk
  • A huge fried breakfast from a greasy spoon cafe
  • Total abstinence.

All of these cures have their merits. Abstinence, of course, is the best way to avoid a hangover, but who really wants to stop drinking completely? It is only after the effects have taken place and the evening is over that people swear never to drink again, after all! Coke, banana, egg and milk all help too, as does the breakfast if it can be stomached, as anything which peps up blood sugar levels can be helpful in alleviating the symptoms. However, there are some foolproof ways of beating the hangover once and for all.

How to Avoid a Hangover Completely

The following rules will keep the drinker safe from the Morning After effects, while ensuring a good evening:

  • Eat a decent meal before going out, and line the stomach with milk if possible before drinking
  • Take regular breaks from alcoholic drinks, alternating with water
  • Do not mix drinks – stick to one type
  • Avoid neat shots such as Tequila or Vodka like the plague!
  • Drink at least a pint of water before bed, to avoid dehydration
  • Eat, if possible, before bed to keep blood sugar levels high
  • Drink less alcohol!
  • Get a good night’s sleep
  • Take two Paracetamol upon waking, if symptoms are still present.

Obviously, drinking responsibly and in moderation is the best way to avoid feeling rough in the morning following a good night out. However, sticking to the tips above should assist the party-goer to have a safe, hangover-free and altogether superb evening out.

Most real estate investors start their career with simple rehabs. Many homeowner hear the horror stories of rehabs and automatically steer clear of any rehabilitation projects. Unfortunately many homeowners leave great opportunities on the table when they make this decision. Imagine if you could live in a better neighborhood, with better school districts, shopping, and other nice amenities. You can achieve this by simply opening your mind to rehab opportunities.

Find a Property with Rehab Potential

Get a real estate agent that has experience buying and selling rehab properties. If you have never done a rehab before, it will be very hard to distinguish between what is a great candidate for a rehab and what really just needs to be torn down. You would be surprised at the subtle differences. As a rule of thumb avoid properties with any foundation damage or needing repairs of over half their value. If you are purchasing a house for $200,000, watch out if the house needs more than $100,000 of repairs.

If you are a beginner, try to keep it to 25% of the value of the house. The reasoning here is twofold. First, the more repairs that need to be done, the more likely there are additional repairs that you don’t see. This can be devastating if not budgeted for. More importantly, you want to make sure you are adding value. The more repairs that need to be done, the deeper the discount of a property. This does not just mean the property should be the same price minus repairs. There should be an additional discount because of the risks involved in doing a rehab.

Quantify the Rehab Opportunity

Once you find the desired neighborhood, you need to look for houses on the lowest end. As you look for these opportunities, you need to have on your rosiest colored glasses. Try to put everything in a financial context. If the front lawn looks overgrown and the screen door is falling off, remember that can all be fixed for less than $100. Don’t let little things force you away from a great opportunity. It’s ok if there is a leaky roof or multiple holes in the walls. These all can be repaired for a few thousand dollars. Watch out for things like cracks in the basement walls, cracks in the foundation, buckled floors, or outdated electrical systems. These can all be very big ticket items and an issue of personal safety. Leave these opportunities to the hardcore rehabbers. Remember, your agent is here to assist you in every aspect of purchasing your home. He/She should be able to give you an estimate of how much potential repairs should cost and refer you to people who can perform those repairs.

Advice for Rehabbers who Live-In

If you plan to live in the house while you are doing repairs avoid rehabs that will make this very uncomfortable. If the house has multiple broken windows and it’s a cold winter, avoid it unless you can get this fixed right away. As you are doing a rehab, consider fixing up the basement and using that as your home base until repairs are done. This may not be optimal, but it will probably be preferable to inhaling dust and other bits as your new dream house is created. Most rehabs go over budget and over time, so don’t be disappointed if you have to spend an extra month or two in an uncomfortable situation. It helps to put a few pictures of the finished product around your cozy living space. Some times this may be the only thing keeping you sane.

Finally, don’t overlook older out dated houses. These may be great opportunities as well. Modernizing one of these houses can net you a solid profit and give you the potential to make a house your own. Many rehabbers only look for beat up houses, but rehabs can come in all shapes and sizes. Don’t make the mistake of thinking one will be easier than the other. Older houses tend to have a lot of hidden issues that can double or triple your expected budget, so watch out.

Rehabs provide great opportunities for buyers to get into better neighborhoods. These opportunities are not for everyone because they take time, patience, and good vision. Before you undertake a rehab, make sure you have good people working for you every step of the way. A good real estate agent and a good work crew can make this process easier (not easy). Always expect the unexpected and budget at least 25% more than the expected cost of everything. Take your time and make sure you are working at a pace that fits your budget (a rehabber’s nightmare is running out of money). With all that in mind, good luck (hopefully you wont need it ). is a powerfully enticing website, rewarding simple tasks–like hitting 3 bubbles in a row of the same color or making it to the end of a maze–with either showing a colorful explosion or making items such as blocks or bubbles disappear.

The site fosters procrastination in a way that facebook and 4chan don’t; facebook and 4chan are social sites filled with boards and threads, but addictinggames gives procrastinators the reward they are looking for.

How It Works

Procrastinators avoid large, important tasks because they feel anxiety over them [The Now Habit: A Strategic Program for Overcoming Procrastination and Enjoying Guilt- Free Play, Fiore]. Thus, they are heavily drawn to much smaller, effortless tasks that reward them with a feeling of accomplishment.

Addictinggames is perfect for the procrastinator’s situation, because the games reward the player for very little effort by making something disappear (like crossing an item off a to-do list) or showing a pretty graphic. Thus, the player can spend hours on this website without realizing it because he/she is getting rewarded for every small task, as opposed to working on a larger, important task that requires much more effort before the feeling of reward comes.

Fighting the Urge to Play Addictinggames

  • Sometimes if a procrastinator cannot stop playing a certain game, changing the game being played will help to break the mesmerizing pull of the particular game, and can ease the person back into his/her original task. But this does not always work and can backfire.
  • Changing the environment in which a person works can help him/her to approach his/her work differently. Moving a laptop to a different, cleaner room or a table as opposed to a desk can have an effect on the anxiety of the person.
  • Talking to other people about one’s procrastination struggles can make one not feel so alone.
  • Breaking down a task into bite-sized pieces isn’t enough for procrastinators; one must reward oneself for each bite-sized piece like the games on addictinggames reward the player for tiny accomplishments. If one is computer savvy, one might create a small flash that goes off for every finished paragraph or set of calculations. Or, one could set up a movie and watch one minute of that movie for every small accomplishment.

Procrastinators are drawn to because of its simplicity and easy rewards. To fight against this pull, a procrastinator should experiment with tactics on what works for him/her and be sure to give himself/herself lots of rewards for doing what he/she should be doing.

In August, 2005, a 28-year-old man colapsed in an internet cafe in South Korea and later died.

According to reports at the time, he’d been playing Starcraft for 50 hours with few breaks. Local police figured he died from heart-failure brought on by exhaustion.

While it’s rare to hear about gamers actually dying from their addictions, the problem clearly exists. This why the Smith & Jones Wild Horses Centre in Amsterdam has a new program for compulsive gamers.

The Need for the Program

According to the centre’s website, the need for the program became apparent when staff interviewed clients who’d come in for drug or alcohol addictions and found a small number were also addicted to video games.

The site goes on to explain that many of the symptoms described by the game addicts were similar those experienced by junkies and alcoholics: obsessive thinking, health problems, long-term damage to personal relationships and career problems.

In fact, the 28-year-old Korean man had been fired for missing work to play video games short before he died.

Increasing Popularity

Many experts point to the increasing popularity of online multi-player games like MMORPGs(massive multiplayer online role playing games) as a reason why the problem seems to be getting worse.

These games provide an entire virtual world to be explored while allowing players to interact with others all over the world. They can join guilds to team up, collect money to buy bigger and better iteams and gain experience to become stronger.

The desire to become stronger and gain more is what leads to the compulsive play. This can be seen by a glance at eBay these days, where virtual property in these online worlds is up for auction, some of it going for insane prices. Players are actually willing to part with real money to gain more in the games.

Fighting Compulsive Gaming

To combat compulsive gaming, the Smith & Jones program offers not only detox and therapy but also takes patients out to the wilderness for “high-adrenaline” activities so they can find thrills in the “real world.”

The centre’s website acknowledges that 80 per cent of gamers are fine but aim’s to help the ones with real and serious problems.

Suboxone is composed of a combination of naloxone and buprenorphine. Naloxone works by blocking the effects of opioids such as heroin, codeine, and morphine. Buprenorphine is an opioid but produces less of an euphoric (high) feeling and it is easier to stop taking.

Administration of Suboxone

Suboxone is used to switch you from your current opioid to Suboxone. During your initial dosage, you must be experiencing mild-to-moderate withdrawal symptoms. This is extremely important. If you take an initial dose of Suboxone without being in mild-to-moderate withdrawal, the medicine will cause you to feel worse because it will cause withdrawal symptoms. Your first dose will be given in your physician’s office. Your symptoms will be assessed and depending on your reaction to the first dose, you may have to be given a second dose.

After your physician has determined a correct dosage, you will be given a prescription to take at home. Your doctor may want to see you daily for the first week to adjust your dosages.

You will be required to fulfill a maintenance program. This will include treatment compliance, taking your Suboxone as prescribed, and generally includes participation in some form of counseling or therapy.

Side Effects of Suboxone

Common side effects while taking this medication can include headache, trouble sleeping, sweating, pain, stomach pain, nausea, or constipation.

Suboxone should not be stopped without first discussing this with your physician. Suboxone can cause withdrawal symptoms and it is best to have your doctor gradually reduce your dosage to avoid these unpleasant side effects.

Seek medical attention immediately if while taking Suboxone you experience an allergic reaction, difficulty breathing, closing of the throat, swelling to your lips, tongue or face, hives, dizziness, confusion, slow breathing, yellowing of your eyes or skin, dark colored urine, or light colored stools.

Considerations while on Suboxone

Suboxone, when given at the proper dosage, helps patients reduce illicit opioid use and remain in treatment. It works by suppressing the symptoms of withdrawal and decreases cravings for opioids.

Alcohol should not be used while on this medication. Alcohol can increase drowsiness and dizziness.

Discuss any other medications you are currently taking with your physician before taking Suboxone. Certain medicines such as antidepressants, antihistamines, sedatives, pain relievers, muscle relaxants, and anxiety pills can interact and cause a dangerous level of drowsiness.

An overdose of Suboxone can cause death. You should only use Suboxone exactly as prescribed by your physician.